Quantum Efficiency| Sciencetech Inc.

Quantum Efficiency

EQE (IPCE), IQE, and IV Measurements in One Turnkey System

DBP, CPM, PDS, SSP, DCM optional

Quantum Efficiency Measurement System

Quantum Efficiency Measurements Capabilities

The quantum efficiency (QE) of a device is a measure of its ability to convert incoming photons into electrons or other charge carriers.

For example, a device with a Quantum efficiency (QE) of 50% will produce 50 electrons of signal if it receives 100 photons. QE is critical for  light-detecting devices such as cameras, solar cells, and photodetectors.    Quantum efficiency (QE)    is determined by the wavelength of the photons as well as the characteristics of the device material.    Quantum efficiency (QE)    can be eternal or internal, and it can be described as a function of wavelength or energy.



Quantum efficiency measurement systems
allow users to quantify the performance of photovoltaic cells. Quantum efficiency focuses on the proportion of the incident photons applied to the cell that are successfully collected. 


Sciencetech's PV Testing System (PTS) is a cost-effective complete TurnKey system. It allows measurement for solar cell testing and characterization:  

Quantum Efficiency Measurement | Solar Cell testing

Included Measurements


Current-Voltage (I-V) Testing.  VOC , ISC, Rshunt, Pmax, efficiency %, and fill factor

Spectral Response (SR): 250-2500nm range
External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) | (IPCE) 
Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE Test)
Reflectance and transmittance measurements

Optional Upgrades


Constant Photocurrent method (CPM)
Dual-Beam Photocurrent (DBM)
Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS)
Steady-State Photoconductivity (SSPC)
Temperature Control
DC measurement

External Quantum Efficiency (EQE | IPCE)

Defined as the ratio of the number of carriers generated and collected by the solar cell to the number of photons of an incident beam without considering the losses due to reflection, transmission, or absorption from the sample

Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE)

A calculation of the QE with consideration of the losses at the sample, i.e., the ratio of the number of carriers generated and collected by the solar cell to the number of photons that are truly converted by the solar cell.

Quantum Efficiency Measurement System

Quantum Efficiency Measurement Standards

For Quantum Efficiency Measurements of Solar Cell Testing and Characterization


All Sciencetech systems incorporate adherence to industry standards. Sciencetech PV Testing System equipment are designed and manufactured according to:

ASTM E 1021-15: Standard Test Method for Spectral Responsivity Measurements of Photovoltaic Devices
ASTM E948-09: Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight
IEC 60904-8: Measurement of spectral responsivity of a photovoltaic (PV) device
IEC 60904-1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics

Test cell included for verification (SCI-REF-NL). SCIENCETECH include a complete Quality Control Report including test results (Calibration, Spectral response, quantum efficiency and IV measurements)

Contact Us Today
Get more information or request a quote.
Quantum Efficiency Measurement System (PTS) Model for Solar Cell Testing

Sciencetech Inc. designs and manufactures five different variants of Quantum Efficiency Measurement System (PTS), as shown in the following table, for implementation of different experimental methods: External and Internal Quantum Efficiency (EQE and IQE), Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM), Dual Beam Photocurrent Method (DBP) and Steady State Photo Conductivity (SSPC).

PV Cell
Testing
Model
IV
Curves
Spectral
Response
(SR)
External Quantum
Efficiency (EQE)
Internal Quantum
Efficiency (IQE)
Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM) Dual Beam Photocurrent (DBP) Photothermal
Deflection
Spectroscopy (PDS)
Steady State
Photoconductivity (SSPC)
X X X
X X X X
X X X (upgrade) X
X X X (upgrade) X
X X X (upgrade) X
X X X (upgrade) X

If you do not see the upgrade you are looking for, contact us and let us know what upgrade you would like and we will design it just for you!

Research Publications Referencing Sciencetech PTS QE

Sengupta, D., et al. "Zinc oxide photo-anode based chlorophyll sensitized solar cell."(2014)
Read the article
Garcia‐Angelmo, A. R., et al. "Thin film solar cell of SnS absorber with cubic crystalline structure." physica status solidi (a) 212.10 (2015): 2332-2340.
Read the article
Das, P., et al. "Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO2 layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics." Materials Research Bulletin 66 (2015): 32-38.
Read the article
Pratiyush, Anamika Singh, et al. "High Responsivity in Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown\b {eta}-Ga2O3 Metal Semiconductor Metal (MSM) Solar Blind Deep-UV Photodetector." arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.04470 (2017)
Read the article
Sengupta, D., B. Mondal, and K. Mukherjee. "Genesis of flake-like morphology and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of Al-doped ZnO particles: a study." Journal of Nanoparticle Research 19.3 (2017): 100.
Read the article
Nittala, Pavani Vamsi Krishna, and Prosenjit Sen. "Scaling a fluorescent detection system by polymer-assisted 3-D integration of heterogeneous dies." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 27.5 (2018): 896-909.
Read the article
Solanke, Swanand, et al. "Multi-layer MoS2/GaN UV-Visible photodetector with observation of MoS2 band edge in spectral responsivity." arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.11012 (2018).
Read the article
Junda, Maxwell M., et al. "A Versatile Optical Model Applied to CdTe and CdSe 1–y Te y Alloys: Sensitivity to Film Composition and Relative Defect Density." 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC)(A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC). IEEE, 2018.
Read the article
Nair, P. K., et al. "Functional prototype modules of antimony sulfide selenide thin film solar cells." Thin Solid Films 669 (2019): 410-418.
Read the article
Sciencetech PTS - Quantum Efficiency Measurement Brochures

Download our brochures for PTS 2 Quantum Efficiency. Model EQE | IPCE and model IQE+EQE.


Download our brochures for PTS 3 PTD Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy System

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The PTS-1-SR system includes a lamp and monochromator for a tunable light source, which is coupled to a high sensitivity source meter with measurement software. This user-friendly system is the most powerful Spectral Response system currently on the market, but its true power is the ease of upgrading from the base PTS-1 to the more powerful PTS-2-QE (Quantum Efficiency) or PTS-3-CPM (Constant Photocurrent Method). Designed for researchers who have limited budgets but want to start work immediately, this allows the ability to do baseline studies until additional funding for the full QE or CPM system becomes available.
Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-1 Includes:
-Spectral Response and EQE measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
38,672.00
In stock
The PTS-1-SR system includes a lamp and monochromator for a tunable light source, which is coupled to a high sensitivity source meter with measurement software. This user-friendly system is the most powerful Spectral Response system currently on the market, but its true power is the ease of upgrading from the base PTS-1 to the more powerful PTS-2-QE (Quantum Efficiency) or PTS-3-CPM (Constant Photocurrent Method). Designed for researchers who have limited budgets but want to start work immediately, this allows the ability to do baseline studies until additional funding for the full QE or CPM system becomes available.
Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-1 Includes:
-Spectral Response and EQE measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
38,672.00 38672.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-2-QE system allows an overall "external" quantum value measurement, which is considered the most important factor in cell testing. It includes all the Spectral Response equipment of the PTS-1, as well as a bias light and additional electronics and software to seamlessly allow user-friendly measurements of Quantum Efficiency.

PTS-2-QE Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-External Quantum Efficiency - IPCE

Each PTS-2 system is rigorously tested in our London Ontario lab to meet minimum benchmark capabilities. Each system includes a detailed test report including probe beam characterization with a calibrated reference detector. EQE and IV measurement capabilities verified against a solar reference device certified by a ISO 170205 accredited laboratory. A SCI-MO device is also characterized and provided with the instrument for operators to verify system operation on site.

An english user manual is provided

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).

The PTS-2 can be upgraded to include Internal Quantum Efficiency measurements, or to include the necessary parts to allow Constant Photocurrent Method measurements (PTS-3)*.
*Please note that upgrading to PTS-3-CPM requires the return of the entire PTS-2-QE to Sciencetech's factory for upgrade - it cannot be upgraded in the field.
42,500.00
In stock
The PTS-2-QE system allows an overall "external" quantum value measurement, which is considered the most important factor in cell testing. It includes all the Spectral Response equipment of the PTS-1, as well as a bias light and additional electronics and software to seamlessly allow user-friendly measurements of Quantum Efficiency.

PTS-2-QE Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-External Quantum Efficiency - IPCE

Each PTS-2 system is rigorously tested in our London Ontario lab to meet minimum benchmark capabilities. Each system includes a detailed test report including probe beam characterization with a calibrated reference detector. EQE and IV measurement capabilities verified against a solar reference device certified by a ISO 170205 accredited laboratory. A SCI-MO device is also characterized and provided with the instrument for operators to verify system operation on site.

An english user manual is provided

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).

The PTS-2 can be upgraded to include Internal Quantum Efficiency measurements, or to include the necessary parts to allow Constant Photocurrent Method measurements (PTS-3)*.
*Please note that upgrading to PTS-3-CPM requires the return of the entire PTS-2-QE to Sciencetech's factory for upgrade - it cannot be upgraded in the field.
41,000.00 41000.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-2-IQE system allows an overall external quantum efficiency value measurement as well as internal quantum efficiency measurements using an integrating sphere. It includes all the spectral response equipment of the PTS-1, as well as a bias light and additional electronics and software to seamlessly allow user-friendly measurements of quantum efficiency.
The PTS-2-IQE Includes the capability to perform the following measurements:
- Current Voltage (I-V) Testing
- Spectral Response
- External Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
- Internal Quantum Efficiency
- Reflectance

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
47,500.00
In stock
The PTS-2-IQE system allows an overall external quantum efficiency value measurement as well as internal quantum efficiency measurements using an integrating sphere. It includes all the spectral response equipment of the PTS-1, as well as a bias light and additional electronics and software to seamlessly allow user-friendly measurements of quantum efficiency.
The PTS-2-IQE Includes the capability to perform the following measurements:
- Current Voltage (I-V) Testing
- Spectral Response
- External Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
- Internal Quantum Efficiency
- Reflectance

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
47,500.00 47500.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-3-CPM allows users the same ability to measure IV, Spectral Response, and Quantum Efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2, but adds the powerful Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM). The CPM system illuminates the sample solar sell with a bias solar light source while a separate light source is modulated to cover a specified spectrum. The bias source ensures that the signal is not dominated by the non-linear response at low-level illumination, but rather gives a baseline response dependent on the wavelength of the modulated source. This allows for a highly precise measurement of defect density. Please speak with a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for more information.
PTS-3-CPM Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-CPM Measurements

This system includes 3 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
92,500.00
In stock
The PTS-3-CPM allows users the same ability to measure IV, Spectral Response, and Quantum Efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2, but adds the powerful Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM). The CPM system illuminates the sample solar sell with a bias solar light source while a separate light source is modulated to cover a specified spectrum. The bias source ensures that the signal is not dominated by the non-linear response at low-level illumination, but rather gives a baseline response dependent on the wavelength of the modulated source. This allows for a highly precise measurement of defect density. Please speak with a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for more information.
PTS-3-CPM Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-CPM Measurements

This system includes 3 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
92,500.00 92500.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-3-DBM has the same ability to measure IV, spectral response, and quantum efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2 systems, but adds the powerful technique of the dual beam photocurrent (DBM) method. The DBM system is based on maintaining constant photocurrent over the range of photon energy to get constant quasi-Fermi levels. Furthermore, the DBM system has the additional capability to vary the bias light source intensity. This changes the electron-hole and quasi-Fermi levels to yield additional information about defect states. Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-3-DBM Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-DBM Measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
93,800.00
In stock
The PTS-3-DBM has the same ability to measure IV, spectral response, and quantum efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2 systems, but adds the powerful technique of the dual beam photocurrent (DBM) method. The DBM system is based on maintaining constant photocurrent over the range of photon energy to get constant quasi-Fermi levels. Furthermore, the DBM system has the additional capability to vary the bias light source intensity. This changes the electron-hole and quasi-Fermi levels to yield additional information about defect states. Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-3-DBM Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-DBM Measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
93,800.00 93800.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-3-PTD has the same capabilities to measure IV, Spectral Response, and Quantum Efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2 systems, but adds the powerful photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) method allowing for the direct measurement of the sub-gap absorption of the sample by utilizing the mirage effect. Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-3-PTD Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-PDS Measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
94,750.00
In stock
The PTS-3-PTD has the same capabilities to measure IV, Spectral Response, and Quantum Efficiency as the PTS-1 and PTS-2 systems, but adds the powerful photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) method allowing for the direct measurement of the sub-gap absorption of the sample by utilizing the mirage effect. Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.
PTS-3-PTD Includes:
-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-PDS Measurements

This system includes 2 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
94,750.00 94750.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America


The PTS-4-SSP is Sciencetech’s flagship measurement system. The PTS-4 includes all the measurement extensive measurement tools and capabilities of the PTS 1,2 and 3 and adds the powerful Steady State Photoconductivity (SSP) method. Steady state photoconductivity (SSP) measurements give information about the nature of defects, mobility-lifetime products, and the transport and recombination kinetics of photogenerated carriers. Since the states between quasi-Fermi levels act predominantly as recombination centres, steady state photoconductivity is sensitive to both the density and the nature of these states.

The PTS-4-SSP uses the PTS integrated monochromatic light source to perform steady state photoconductivity measurements. To perform SSP measurements the incident flux is first measured using the provided calibrated reference detector in AC mode. After system calibration is performed the light source chopper is turned off and set to the open position for DC measurements.

Under DC illumination the photocurrent is measured at each wavelength using the included electrometer.

A relative value for the absorption coefficient can be obtained from studies of the sample using the included CPM technique.

Reflectivity measurements are not included with the system and are generally performed using a secondary instrument.

The volume generation rate can be calculated from the measured values of incident flux, the sample thickness, relative absorption coefficient and reflectivity profile. With measurements of the photocurrent and volume generation rate the steady state photoconductivity can be determined.

Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.

PTS-4-SSP Includes:

-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-CPM Measurements
-SSP Measurements

This system includes 4 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
124,500.00
In stock
The PTS-4-SSP is Sciencetech’s flagship measurement system. The PTS-4 includes all the measurement extensive measurement tools and capabilities of the PTS 1,2 and 3 and adds the powerful Steady State Photoconductivity (SSP) method. Steady state photoconductivity (SSP) measurements give information about the nature of defects, mobility-lifetime products, and the transport and recombination kinetics of photogenerated carriers. Since the states between quasi-Fermi levels act predominantly as recombination centres, steady state photoconductivity is sensitive to both the density and the nature of these states.

The PTS-4-SSP uses the PTS integrated monochromatic light source to perform steady state photoconductivity measurements. To perform SSP measurements the incident flux is first measured using the provided calibrated reference detector in AC mode. After system calibration is performed the light source chopper is turned off and set to the open position for DC measurements.

Under DC illumination the photocurrent is measured at each wavelength using the included electrometer.

A relative value for the absorption coefficient can be obtained from studies of the sample using the included CPM technique.

Reflectivity measurements are not included with the system and are generally performed using a secondary instrument.

The volume generation rate can be calculated from the measured values of incident flux, the sample thickness, relative absorption coefficient and reflectivity profile. With measurements of the photocurrent and volume generation rate the steady state photoconductivity can be determined.

Please speak to a Sciencetech Technical Specialist for further information.

PTS-4-SSP Includes:

-IV Testing
-Spectral Response
-Quantum Efficiency/IPCE
-CPM Measurements
-SSP Measurements

This system includes 4 IEC 60320 C13 compatible power cables. Region-specific version must be selected at the time of placing an order (see product 491-9001).
124,500.00 124500.0 USD
Price Valid only in North America
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